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Atypical Employment Survey 2.0

In 2015, 1 out of 6 pilots was atypically employed – a worrying trend of airlines substituting directly employed pilots with contractors to reduce costs. This is why the European Commission appointed Ricardo Energy & Environment ( to carry out a study to explore the employment and working conditions of aircrews in Europe’s aviation market.

The study aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the different forms of employment of aircrews (including atypical forms of employment) and their implications for their working conditions. It covers topics such as temporary agency work, self-employment and pay-to-fly schemes and impacts on gender equality and work-life balance.

Your participation in this survey is crucial for the success of the study! Your responses will help to assess the extent of (ab)use of atypical employment, their impact on working conditions, and if existing EU and national rules are sufficiently protective.

The survey takes about 20 minutes to complete. It will run for 6 weeks: Deadline 7 May.

If you have any questions about the survey or study, the Ricardo team can be reached at